This is the second series describing the ADD: a radically more productive development and delivery environment.
Review of the first series
- Amazon EC2 http://aws.amazon.com/
- Amazon S3 http://aws.amazon.com/
- GitHub.com http://github.com/
- HipChat http://HipChat.com/
in a way that gives individuals and teams 4x or more productivity. These resulting environment solves problems for all three roles in a development team:
And can be envisioned as so:
Along the way, the ingredients combined to make:
- Machines automatically launch and configure themselves, including hooking them up to each other (auto-wire)
- Changes to IT roll out automatically to all the running machines.
- Changes to the application roll out automatically to all the running machines.
- Creating new environments to be as easy providing a simple parameter (e.g. “fed2”) to a CloudFormation
- The whole thing working on EC2 or inside a Vagrant container… or even on bare metal (but that was not shown)
- Incredible visibility into everything that happens within HipChat… for the whole team.
By the end, we had machines tell us when they launched, when they were operational, when they were deploying a new version, and whether that new version deployed successfully.
and finally, we had a running application at a human-usable URL:
That could be scaled to any number of servers as load demands.
The above is the core of the ADD and enabling team productivity and customer visibility (even happiness) to shoot through the roof. It by itself is basically ‘complete’. It is missing some details, nuances, augmentation, and such. But it alone is the core of a 4x productivity.
“Complete! What nonsense! Where are your automated tests! How do you check for code quality! What kind of programming language do you use! And where is your description of Scrum, XP, Waterfall, etc. methodology to use with this ADD?!!”
Ah… yes. Over my thirty five years and estimated thirty five thousand hours of developing software, I have encountered all these things. I do have opinions on a lot of these things. Preferences. Best practices. You may be interested. They matter. A little.
How little? Maybe… maybe… 2x.
I mentioned in the first series that when I shifted to Java from Smalltalk, I lost a lot of productivity. Part of it was in going from a hyper-productive language (Smalltalk) to a mediocre language. Most of it was going from a hyper-productive development model (tweak and clone) to a horrible development model (build most of it from scratch… because there are no libraries). I bet I lost 4x in productivity. And then another 2x when people started mucking with my code. 4x is a lot. 2x is a little. And if you try to get the ‘2x’ but lose the ‘4x’ you just did a win-LOSE bad tradeoff.
There are a lot of lies or confusions in the software industry. During the nineties we tried to get rid of a lot of them through actual research-based observations (e.g. “The Mythical Man-Month” by Fred Brooks) and experience-based observations (e.g. “The Agile Manifesto” by Kent, Ken, Ward, etc.). The truth of software is available… but the lies hide it. And people can’t tell the difference. And don’t believe the science. Or are too scared of losing their jobs (or having a more boring job) if they believe and speak the truth vs. the lie.
Truth: One Brain
I will first start with among the best researched truth there is:
- The best software is created by one primary, talented, and skilled ‘brain’
- Potentially accompanied by some number of ‘assistants’
This is the ‘surgical team’ model. You want one primary, talented, and skilled ‘Surgeon’. A ‘Surgeon’ with many thousands if not many tens-of-thousands of hours of experience. Nurses can help. Support doctors can help. Even other surgeons can help. If the operation is long enough, you might need multiple primary surgeons who pass the baton along to each other. But if someone is opening your body… you want that person to be fully responsible, fully accountable, insanely competent, and insanely skilled. An insanely great surgeon. She will charge you a lot, and you will get a lot in return.
Software is the same. The best software is create by one primary, talented, and skilled ‘Engineer’. An ‘Engineer’ with many thousands if not many tens-of-thousands of hours of experience. QA can help. Support programmers can help. Software is never needed so quickly as to require a hourly baton, but that can happen if the ‘Engineer’ moves on to other things.
If someone is writing an application that you want to be valuable to you… you want that person to be fully responsible, fully accountable, insanely competent, and insanely skilled. An insanely great engineer. She will charge you a lot, and you will get a lot in return.
Lie: All together now!
But software developers don’t like this truth. They think they (after less than 5000 hours) can be the point person for building an application. I don’t mean 5000 hours of work I mean 5000 hours in surgery and that is after say 2x the amount of hours of studying surgery. So 10,000 hours of studying how to build software applications and 5,000 hours of writing code that builds actual production-worthy software applications. If you work 2000 hours a year and spend half of it actually on either of those tasks… it would take you about 15 years to be ‘an Engineer’. Ten years of reading and five years of writing. Done concurrently, where reading dominates early and writing dominates later.
But again, developers don’t like this truth and instead they say: “If a bunch of us get together we can reproduce that surgeon with each of our individual skills.”
But this is saying: “Nine people who can dissect frogs can perform brain surgery”, or “Nine club tennis players can beat Roger Federer if they tag-team”. Or “Nine people who are good in the kitchen can together produce a better meal than Gordon Ramsey in a throw down”. Or…
Hopefully by shifting the context you can see the impossibility of it. It makes absolutely no sense, yet the lie is propagated so much as to be systemically the status quo. Even the smallest XP version of the lie “You need two people to write better software” is ludicrous. Better to have two surgeons perform two different operations at the same time… and save two lives. There is nothing wrong with having an apprentice watch / help. But that is training (somewhat to both parties) not doing
Truth: Customer Rules
The second truth is that the customer rules. If the customer is happy… WIN! If they are not happy… :-(
Given this is sort of in the Agile Manifesto you would think it would be well known now that everyone is ‘Going Agile’. But reviewing the Agile Manifesto, I see that it “backed off” saying what it should say. The lines that it should have within it are:
- Working software over …everything…
- Customer happiness over …everything…
But because software developers think they are special… unusually talented in a way that is beyond the customer… like ‘artists’… they think these two lines do not apply to them. Again, the insanity of it is evident when you shift industry. Say ‘Food’:
- Working food (e.g. good produce, a cooked meal, etc.) over ???
- Customer happiness over ???
Pretty sure if you nail the second bullet, you nailed the first one (and maybe some more). And not nailing both these bullets is a path to failure. The question marks are replaceable with ‘everything not mentioned’. So the actual pyramid is this:
- Happy Customer (100%)
- Delivered good product (80%)
- All the stuff needed to do the above
- Other aspects of delivering (20%) – E.g. customer interaction, appearance of product or delivery person, etc.
- All the stuff needed to do the above
- Delivered good product (80%)
You are allowed to have less than totally happy customers. But you should try to fix that. You should care. Otherwise you are resigning yourself to being content with the quality of your product being sub-par. And likely headed downward.
You are allowed to hate making your customers happy. You can change industries. Change role. Continually grumble about how bad your job is (but google “Worst Jobs” to see you don’t have it so bad). But you are not allowed to say that your customer shouldn’t be 100% happy… or at least as happy as you can make them.
Lie: Automated Testing and Quality Verification
The second lie is that instead of trying to make the customer 100% happy, we are going to make our automated tests and our QA verification servers happy. We are going to make them more happy than our customer and before we make our customer happy.
This actually pops up as a ‘truth’ in education too. We try to make the tests happy as opposed to the students, except in exceptional schools that Think Different. But in most any normal industry, making a ‘test’ happy instead of a customer is a crazy and effective way to go out of business. Say we inspected and tested every hamburger before it went out the door. Fast food would take on a whole new meaning as it took minutes per-person to do the inspection. And things like ‘salad’ would be unservable. Salad almost always has something weird in it, and finding it takes about the same amount of time as eating it. And it would basically destroy / consume the salad as you checked each leaf, fruit, and nut.
Again, automated testing is useful. But it is not necessary. And it doesn’t trump releasing to a customer so they can see the ‘Delivered good product’.
Conclusion : Customer’s One Powerful Right and Responsibility
The ADD described so far, efficiently, effectively, and production-worthy scalably enabled one simple thing:
That is a delivered good product (if you want to run a Pet Clinic). What the application is beneath that, and what processes were used to develop it, are all “of little importance”. There are many ways to develop an identical web site. The stack and method I will describe is just one of them. It is a reference that I consider a “Best Practice” among alternative “Best Practice” possibilities. And all of these alternatives get measured by exactly one macro criteria: “Customer Satisfaction”. For example:
- Buggy in production, customer is less happy.
- Take longer to build, customer is less happy.
Neither of the above trumps the other. The ratio between them ‘depends’. And that ratio is totally under the customer’s control. They may not know the ratio before the fact, but while ‘driving’ the system they have every right and even responsibility to complain. The development team can make an ‘Educated Guess’ at the start of the project but if the customer complains, they need to address that complaint and change the process, tools, people, or office space as much as possible and reasonable to make the customer more happy. Maybe just a little change to become a little more happy: we aren’t prescient and you don’t know if the change will cause havoc (everyone quits) or even address the issue. But you address the complaint with an another ‘Educated Guess’. Over and over.
What should your development process be? It depends… on your customer and your product and your team and … The reason you need an Engineer is they make great ‘Educated Guesses’. And can iterate incredibly quickly to fine tune the process and tools to what will work for the customer and the development team.
But the following parts of this series will be a good start. It is my best recommendation in 2015 for a modern, JVM-based, web-delivered, set of development methods, tools, frameworks, and other components.